Negotiate 1-2-3


The concept of anchoring draws on the tendency to attach or "anchor" our thoughts to a reference point - even though it may have no logical relevance to the decision at hand. (Source: Investopedia)

A process to resolve a dispute between negotiating parties who have reached a deadlock in their negotiation. The parties in dispute are referred to a ‘third party’, which is one that is either agreed upon by the parties in dispute, or as provided by legislated law. The third party renders a judgement that is binding on the parties in dispute. Arbitration is often used in international negotiations and in collective bargaining. (Source:

A form of distributive negotiation. Bargaining is a simple form of negotiation process that is both competitive and positional. Bargaining predominates in one-time negotiations and often revolves around a single issue – usually price. One party usually attempts to gain advantage over another to obtain the best possible agreement (Source:

A best alternative to a negotiated agreement (BATNA) is the course of action that will be taken by a party engaged in negotiations if the talks fail and no agreement can be reached. A party's BATNA refers to what they can fall back on if a negotiation proves unsuccessful. Term coined by Roger Fisher and William Ury. (Source: Investopedia)

Binding Arbitration
Dispute resolution in which the intervenor has the power to declare winners and losers (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

“Building a golden bridge” technique
William Ury, author of Getting Past No: Negotiating Your Way from Confrontation to Cooperation, calls this strategy “building a golden bridge.” It involves allowing the other side to make a graceful exit – and practicing the diplomatic art of letting others have your way. (Source: Program on Negotiation, Harvard Law School)


Building a golden bridge refers to making sure you have satisfied and overcome the four common obstacles to an agreement: involving them in devising a solution, meeting unmet interests, helping them save face and finally making the process as simple and easy as possible. (Source: Psychology Today)

Where each party demonstrates his willingness of suffer great loss in order to force the other to capitulate (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Cognitive biases
Common tendency to acquire and process information by filtering it through one's own likes, dislikes, and experiences. (Source: Business Dictionary)

Collective bargaining
A negotiation process that occurs between employers (or their representatives) and the representatives of a union to negotiate issues that consists of wages, hours of work and other conditions of employment. Normally results in a written contract that is defined by specific time duration – ‘life of the contract’. (Source:

Correcting move (turn)
A correcting turn substitutes a different version or motivation to the one the move implied. Rather than just rejecting the positioning, a correcting turn constructs a different positioning for the turner that can neutralize the move. (Source: Strategic Moves and Turns, The Negotiators Fieldbook)

A situation in which an agreement cannot be made : a situation in which ending a disagreement is impossible because neither side will give up something that it wants (Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

Deal space
Unlike the test of wills model of negotiation, which sees the contest as a zero sum game, the deal space approach opens up the negotiating situation to imaginative tweaking by asking you to consider three sides of the issue: your baseline, their baseline and outside constraints. The more you work through the possible plays ahead of time by working them through the deal triangle, the more flexible you will be going in. (Source: Blogcritics review of Michael Wheeler’s The Art of Negotiation)

Dispute negotiation vs.Transactional negotiation
Dispute negotiation, is focused on resolving past facts; transaction negotiation is focused on reaching agreement for the future. (Source:

Distributive negotiation
A distributive negotiation type or process that normally entails a single issue to be negotiated. The single issue often involves price and frequently relates to the bargaining process. Also referred to as ‘Win – Lose’, or ‘Fixed – Pie’ negotiation because one party generally gains at the expense of another party. 'Win - Win' negotiation is conversely often referred to as Integrative Negotiation. (Source:

End game
The final stage of some action or process (Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

Engaging defines the “who” of negotiation. It’s about identity, roles, and relationships. As social psychologists and neuroscientists have demonstrated, we form judgments of other people ultrafast (just as they do of us) (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Exploding offers
Short deadline for acceptance of a negotiation offer (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Framing is the “what” of negotiation. It’s the way the parties define the task. Are we pursuing a partnership, resolving a conflict, or simply haggling? Is this a matter of high principle or is it run of the mill? The who of negotiation—how the parties see each other relationally—is bound up in what they think they are addressing (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Going to the balcony
Term coined by William Ury, author of Getting Past No to describe the value of creating psychological distance. (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Hour glass gambit
Offer that doesn’t explode entirely, but its value declines with passing time (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Interpersonal dynamics
What people say, do, and feel in relation to one another (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Integrative Negotiation
Integrative negotiation is often referred to as 'win-win' and typically entails two or more issues to be negotiated. It often involves an agreement process that better integrates the aims and goals of all the involved negotiating parties through creative and collaborative problem solving. Relationship is usually more important, with more complex issues being negotiated than with Distributive Negotiation. (Source:

Norming is the “how” of negotiation. It’s how parties set the tone and pace of the process. It is tightly linked to the manner in which parties relate to one another and define the task at hand (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Mediation usually consists of a negotiation process that employs a ‘mutually agreed’ upon third party to settle a dispute between negotiating parties to find a compatible agreement to resolve disputes. (Source:

The process of emulating, or copying exactly the behaviors, speech, and characteristics of another individual. (Source: Psychology Dictionary)

Power poses
Body posture, which can be used to build a sense of strength and confidence in social situations. (Source: Psychology Today)

Shadow negotiation
The complex and subtle game people play before the get to the table and continue to play after they arrive. The shadow negotiation doesn't determine the “what” of the discussion, but the “how”. Which interests will hold sway? Will the conversation's tone be adversarial or cooperative? Whose opinions will be heard? In short, how will the bargainers deal with each other? (Source: The Negotiator Magazine)

A contest, dispute, competition, etc., in which neither side can gain an advantage or win (Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

Unspoken issues that the parties are dealing with implicitly (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Sunk cost
Money already spent and permanently lost. Sunk costs are past opportunity costs that are partially or totally irretrievable and, therefore, should be considered irrelevant to future decision making. (Source: Business Dictionary)

A final proposition, condition, or demand; especially : one whose rejection will end negotiations and cause a resort to force or other direct action (Source: Merriam-Webster Dictionary)

Value creation
Negotiation outcomes that improve mutual welfare, so that one person’s gains don’t come at the other’s expense (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)

Walk away alternative
Walk away is the alternative that a negotiator will act on if they are not successful in a negotiation. A walk away may be an alternative supplier or buyer, to manufacture the product or deliver the service in-house, to wait or simply do nothing i.e. to go without. The walk away answers the negotiation question: "What will you do if you don't agree this deal?" (Source:

Zero-sum solution
One party’s benefit exacts an equivalent cost for the other (Source: Negotiation 1-2-3)